This post is a research reflection based on my term paper subject choice - the USSR's Salyut Program.
Requirement for ASCI 601 Week 4.
 This is a collection of information that may not necessarily translate to my final research project - mostly for my own, in-depth, knowledge.

Check out Reflection 1 for Salyut 1 - 3 basics, and Reflection 2 for their details.

Figure 1.

Sketch of Soyuz crew ferry docking with Salyut 1 space station.

Note: From International Space Station, Russian space stations [Fact Sheet], by Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 1997, NASA (https://er.jsc.nasa.gov/seh/russian.pdf). NASA content (images, videos, audio, etc) are generally not copyrighted and may be used for educational or informational purposes without needing explicit permissions (NASA Image Use Policy).

Recap: The Salyut Program

After multiple ICBM and Soyuz successes, the USSR knew they had the data they needed to make a space station a reality. While NASA was proceeding as a civilian endeavor, the USSR maintained a classified, military-industrial posture (Sagdeev, Eisenhower, & Logsdon, 2008). On the heels of the USAF's and NRO's Manned Orbital Laboratory cancellation - with only the mockup ever entering orbit in 1966 - the USSR got to work (Uri, 2019).

Originally, the USSR had two station types: Salyut (civilian), and Almaz (military). The Almaz program was approved, first - proposed in 1964, with work beginning in 1970. They realized that using the civilian orbiters, while switching between civilian and military purposes for each station, was the perfect cover for world speculation. Therefore, they established the Salyut Program and focused their efforts...

Sixteen months after the 1970 establishment of the Salyut Program, on April 19, 1971, Salyut 1 was in LEO (Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 1997, pg. 2).

We'll do a general bullet review of  Salyut stations 4 through 7 - success or failure - to get their backstories.

 

Salyut (Salute)

  • The USSR's civilian type space station, conceived after Almaz type stations
  • Also, the public name of each space station
    • Salyut 2, 3, and 5 were secretly Almaz 1, 2, and 3
  • Salyut type stations used Almaz hardware for large components, such as the hull, while Soyuz hardware components were used for the subsystems
  • The Salyut type differed from the Almaz type in construction with docking in the rear (Salyut was in the front) and Almaz stations had weapons on board(Portree, 1995)

Almaz (Diamond)

  • The Almaz Program and station type was conceived before the Salyut Program and station type
  • Military - secrecy was high and information is difficult to find
  • Was meant to use Transport Logistics Spacecraft (TKS) rather than Soyuz before the Salyut/Almaz secrecy idea came into play
  • Almaz Program/stations were cancelled prior to Salyut 7; Salyut 7 was originally going to be Almaz 4
  • The remaining Almaz stations were converted into unmanned satellites
    (Portree, 1995)

 

Week 6: Salyut 4 - 7

Salyut 4

  • Launched December 26, 1974 from Baikonur Cosmodrome
  • The last Salyut to incorporate Soyuz hardware components
  • Reentered February 2, 1977
  • (Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 1997, pg. ; Salyut 4, n.d.; Portree, 1995, pgs. 62, 70 - 72)

Dimensions

  • 15 m, 4.15 m, 90 cm³ internal
  • 1 docking port

External

  • 3 solar arrays
  • Optical sensors
  • X-ray detector

Crews

  • Soyuz 17:

    • Alexi Gubarev & Georgi Grechko
      • Code name: Zenit
    • Launched from Baikonur Cosmodrome
    • January 12 - February 9, 1975
  • The April 5 Anomaly:

    • Vasili Lazerev, Oleg Makarov
      • Code name: Ural
    • Catastrophic Soyuz booster failure during ascent
  • Soyuz 18:

    • Pyotr Klimuk, Vitali Sevastyanov
      • Code name: Kavkaz
  • Soyuz 20

    • Unmanned
    • November 17, 1975 - February 16, 1976
    • Carried life science experiments, bedrock of Progress development
      (Portree, 1997, pg. 70 - 72; Salyut 4, n.d.; Soyuz 18, n.d.; Soyuz 20, n.d.)

Salyut 5/Almaz 3

  • June 22, 1976 - August 8, 1977
  • Primarily military mission
  • There was a planned Soyuz 25 mission, but orbit decayed before it could happen

Dimensions

  • 14.55 m, 4.15 m, 100 m³ internal
  • 1 docking port

External

  • 2 solar arrays
  • Research module ejected February 26, 1977
  • (Notable Equipment next week)

Crews

  • Soyuz 21:

    • Boris Volynov, Vitali Zholobov
      • Code name: Baykal
    • July 7 - August 24, 1976
    • The crew observed the Siber military exercise in Siberia to assess the station's surveillance
    • A fire seems to have been the reason the crew left before they were officially supposed to
  • Soyuz 23:

    • Vyacheslav Zudov, Valeri Rozhdestvenski
      • Code name: Radon
    • Docking failure
  • Soyuz 24:

    • Viktor Gorbatko, Yuri Glazkov
      • Code name: Terel
    • February 5 - 25, 1977
    • Due to Soyuz 21's situation, breathing masks were worn upon entry
      • Air was safe
    • Mission purpose was to finish what Soyuz 21 started
    • Earth-return capsule: film and experiment samples
      • Jettisoned the day after their departure
        (Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 1995, pg. 1; Portree, 1997, pg. 73; Salyut 5, n.d.; Soyuz 21, n.d.; Soyuz 23, n.d.; Soyuz 24, n.d.)

Salyut 6

  • September 29, 1977 - July 29, 1982
  • First upgraded (second-generation) Salyut
    • Two docking ports and a third solar panel

Dimensions

  • 15.8m x 4.15max diameter x 90m3 of habitable space
  • 2 docking ports
  • 2 main engines

External

  • Docking ports meant long visits from
    • Soyuz Ferry, Soyuz-T, Progress, and Cosmos 1267 FGB
    • Soyuz transfers
  • Solar panels

Crews

  • 18 manned missions
    • Soyuz 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40
      • 25: soft dock achieved, no hard dock due to latches refusing to connect
      • Soyuz 27: First Intercosmos Mission where Czech space traveler Vladimir Remek
      • Soyuz 29: Second Intercosmos Mission - Poland's Miroslaw Hermaszewski; East German, Sigmund Jahn
      • Soyuz 33 main engine failure; no docking
      • Unmanned test flight of Soyuz-T 1, an improved version of Soyuz Ferry; remained docked 95 days
      • Soyuz 35: Hungarian Bertalan Farkas
      • Manned Soyuz-T 2 test
      • Soyuz 37: Vietnam made it to space - Pham Tuan
      • Soyuz 37: Cuba in Space - Arnaldo Tamayo-Mendez
      • Manned Soyuz-T 3 and T 4 interchangeably used between Soyuz Ferries
      • Soyuz 40 was last Soyuz Ferry to dock with a Salyut space station
      • Crews docked at aft port, transferred to front for next spacecraft; the transferred craft would bring the last crew back to Earth
  • 13 unmanned missions (resupply and fueling)

(Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 1995, pg. 1; Portree, 1997, pg. 74-88; Salyut 6, n.d.; Soyuz 21, n.d.; Soyuz 23, n.d.; Soyuz 24, n.d.

Salyut 7

  • Was launched while Salyut 6 was still in-orbit
  • April 19, 1982 - February 7, 1991

Dimensions

  • 16m x 4.15m x 90m3
  • 2 socking ports
  • 2 main engines

External

  • 3 sets of steerable solar arrays
    • Plus extensions!

Crews

  • 12 manned missions
    • Soyuz-T 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15
    • Soyuz-T 8 failed: Igla antenna was damages
    • Soyuz-T 13 famously revived Salyut 7 on a rescue mission - more next week!
  • 15 unmanned missions (resupply & fuel)
    • Progress

 

  • (Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 1995, pg. 1; Portree, 1997, pg. 90 -  102; Salyut 7, n.d.)

Personal Reflection on Research Thus Far...

The Salyut design, capability, and crews clearly found their groove with these Salyut missions and things really start to take off with Salyut 4. Salyut 6 shows a clear jump in station activity and we'll see, next week, how numerous the on-board experimentation became. Especially after adding the second docking port, these stations truly became long-term getaways!

See you in Week 7!

References

Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. (1997). International Space Station, Russian space stations [Fact Sheet]. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. https://er.jsc.nasa.gov/seh/russian.pdf

NASA Image Use policy. (n.d.). NASA. https://gpm.nasa.gov/image-use-policy

Portree, D. S. (1995, March 1). Mir hardware heritage. (No. 19950016829). Johnson Space Center Reference Series. https://spaceflight.nasa.gov/history/shuttle-mir/references/documents/mirheritage.pdf

Sagdeev, R., Eisenhower, S., & Logsdon, J. (2008, May 28). United States-Soviet space cooperation during the Cold War. NASA. https://www.nasa.gov/50th/50th_magazine/coldWarCoOp.html

Salyut 4. (n.d.). NASA Space Science Data Coordinated Archive. https://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraft/display.action?id=1971-032A

Salyut 5. (n.d.). NASA Space Science Data Coordinated Archive. https://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraft/display.action?id=1973-017A

Salyut 6. (n.d.). NASA Space Science Data Coordinated Archive. https://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraft/display.action?id=1974-046A

Salyut 7. (n.d.). NASA Space Science Data Coordinated Archive. https://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraft/display.action?id=1981-033A

Soyuz 18. (n.d.). NASA Space Science Data Coordinated Archive. https://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraft/display.action?id=1975-044A

Soyuz 20. (n.d.). NASA Space Science Data Coordinated Archive. https://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraft/display.action?id=1975-106A

Soyuz 21. (n.d.). NASA Space Science Data Coordinated Archive. https://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraft/display.action?id=1976-064A

Soyuz 23. (n.d.). NASA Space Science Data Coordinated Archive. https://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraft/display.action?id=1976-100A

Soyuz 24. (n.d.). NASA Space Science Data Coordinated Archive. https://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraft/display.action?id=1977-008A

Uri, J. (2019, June 10). 50 years ago: NASA benefits from Manned Orbital Laboratory cancellation. NASA History. https://www.nasa.gov/feature/50-years-ago-nasa-benefits-from-mol-cancellation

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